The Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom constitutes the peninsular part of the Two Sicilies Kingdom (name of
antique origin, definitively back in use after the Vienna Treaty) comprehensive
also of the Sicily Island; it is the largest and most densely populated of the
Old Italian States.
It is also called "dominion on this side of the lighthouse" ("Dominio al di qua del faro"), in relationship with the position of the Messina lighthouse.
Of very old origin (it was constituted for the first time in 1442), it was under the dictatorship of the Borbone family from 1734, with Carlo VII from Borbone. After the 1816 it was under the dominion of Ferdinand I who died in 1825 leaving the throne to Francesco I.
The territory surface was about 85,200 Sqkm with above 7 millions inhabitants.
In philatelic period Ferdinand II, son of Francesco I, was the King crowned in 1830. Already in the first half of 1800, the kingdom was important under several economic and humanistic aspects (for instance, the "Ferdinando I" the first steam ship, was inaugurated here in 1818); the new king, capable and skilled man, gave additional impulse to the organization and administration of the State, from which derived blooming trades and improvements in several sectors. Naples, the capital, became an important city and well developed: the town got a gas-based lighting and in 1839 the first "Italian" railroad was the Naples-Portici one.
Nevertheless starting 1848, with the wave of popular ferments that involved all Italy, Ferdinand II, changed quite a lot his attitude, becoming much more tough and reactionary king, even if the history indeed has to much insisted on this aspect: he suppressed with the force the riots in Sicily, to the point to order the Messina bombing (from which the nick name of "Bomb king"), getting back the absolute control.
He died in Caserta May 22nd 1859, in a decisive moment of the Italian history, leaving the power in the hands of the first born Francesco II, a young 23 years old king, not prepared, not so well educated, and weak...
that brought to the fall of the Naples kingdom (and of the entire Two Sicilies
Kingdom) remember names and situations very important in the Italian history.
Here is a very short summary: the full description with details would require
an entire book...
After he conquered the Sicily (see related historic introduction) the general Giuseppe Garibaldi (Fig. 1) in August 18th 1860 landed in the Calabria coast, at Melito, with about 4,000 men.
Fig. 1: the general Giuseppe Garibaldi,
one of the most important man in the Risorgimento history.
the clash with the Borbonic troops and the Reggio Calabria conquest (August
19th 1860) the advance uncontainable towards Naples starts, sustained also by
the always-growing popular ferments. The Borbonic troops disappear almost without
posing resistance. The "Garibaldini" advance, by conquering town after
town, entering in Cosenza and Salerno triumphant, to move towards Naples. In
September 6th Francesco II leaves the capital to get refuge in Gaeta, by grouping
all the remaining troops in the Volturno river valley. His intention was to
face Garibaldi before the Sardinian troop arrival, troops that, sent by Piedmont,
were coming from north. He faced Garibaldi, but this tentative, that saw his
troops defeated in the most violent and uncertain battle for the liberation
of the "Mezzogiorno" was worth nothing (October 1st and 2nd, Volturno
river battle). This event closes the so-called "The Thousand Expedition"(see
the Sicily Kingdom introduction).
October 26th in Caianello of Teano Giuseppe Garbaldi meets Vittorio Emanuele II in an historic encounter: one of the most famous and important pages of the history of the Italian Risorgimento.
In the meantime Garibaldi previously entered in Naples in September 7th, proclaiming and assuming the Dictatorship from the following day, dictatorship that not always saw positive things for the various contrasts on methods and times to lead the situation; Garibaldi, after being entered victorious with Vittorio Emanuele II in the capital, asked in November 8th for one year the Government but it was refused; as consequence of that he left the military power s to the general Sirtori, moving in voluntary exile in Caprera island. There are rumors, I don't know how much truthful they are, that when Garibaldi took the ship to Caprera island, in November 9th 1860, he brought with him a pack of cod fish, a small fava beans bag, another beans pack and three horses: Marsala, Borbone (taken to an enemy during a battle in Reggio Calabria) and Said, gift from the Egypt Pasha. In his pockets he had only 2 thousand lire. That is very sad thinking to as much this great hero did for Italy.
The plebiscite of October 21st and 22nd marked the end of the Two Sicilies Kingdom.
The dictatorship was substituted by the Carlo Farini Lieutenance in November 9th 1860.
December 11th the siege of Gaeta fortress was set; after 100 days of siege the French army that was defending the fortress left the Neapolitan sea. The King surrendered and he was allowed to move to Rome together with his wife.
currency in The Naples Kingdom was the Neapolitan Ducato, divided in 100 Grana,
equivalent to 10 Carlini or 200 Tornesi.
One Ducato was equivalent to 4.25 Italian Lire. The Lira was introduced from September end 1861.
briefly the main existent postal rates (rather complex) for a letter first class
for the interior. The letters without postage were delivered but they paid the
usual tax plus another one equal to half the postage.
|One sheet letter||
|Two sheets letter||
|Three sheets letter||
|From 11 to 15 trappesi (*)||
|From 16 to 20 trappesi||
|From 20 to 25 trappesi||
|From 26 trappesi to one ounce (*)||
|In the same Postal District||
|Newspaper and printed material (by sheet)||Half grano|